# Color My World

by Carl Albing
carl.albing@nps.edu

## Background

High Performance Computing (HPC) generates huge amount of data. An important part of HPC, or any field working with "Big Data", is the visualization of results. One of the easiest ways to comprehend large quantities of data is with pictures. (“One picture is worth a thousand words” seems to be really rather an understatement.)

A large collection of numbers may be the most accurate result from some HPC calculations, but it can be hard to understand what those numbers are telling you without seeing a picture. Often those pictures don't have an actual physical visibility; (e.g., what "color" are microwaves?) rather we color the display based on the numeric values using a pseudo-coloring. You likely have seen such pseudo-colorings in radar and satellite weather data:

 The NOAA website (http://www.goes.noaa.gov/ECIR4.html) tells us: Meteorologists use color enhanced imagery as an aid in satellite interpretation. The colors enable them to easily and quickly see features which are of special interest. Usually they look for high clouds or areas with a large amount of water vapor. In an infrared (IR) image cold clouds are high clouds, so the colors typically highlight the colder regions. The bar on the right side of the image indicates the pixel brightness values for the corresponding color. The intensity value represents emitted infrared radiation.

## Overview - A Mystery

Given a data file of numbers - how can you see what it describes? How can you visualize it? If you convert it to an image, what does it look like? Students are given a data file, but no description about what it represents. Can they solve the mystery by generating a reasonable image? (Hint: it is not a radar image.)

The numbers need to be converted to R/G/B pixel values to make an image. But which values get which colors? It's up to the student to decide, but the goal is to tease as much detail out of the numbers as possible, by means of a custom color map.

Why are we doing this?

• First, as an exercise in visualization, to demonstrate the concept of pseudo-coloring.
• Second, to understand how artificial, though important, the coloring is.
• Furthermore, this is also a handy tool that may be useful in future labs when we generate data that we will want to visualize.

Note: This submission doesn't include a sample solution - neither the code nor a rendered image. Why? They are kept secret to preserve the mystery of the image. If/when presented at SIGCSE, the "solved" image will be shown but not supplied (unless you insist). (Why? To avoid an Internet search for solutions.)

 Summary Students develop a program to map raw data files into a colorful images. Topics visualization, big data, image processing - color maps. Audience Use as an early assignment in an HPC class, Scientific Programming class, Data Science/Analysis class, or a Graphics/Image processing class.   Appropriate for CS1 or higher students familar with loops, file io, argument parsing, and image processing.   The starter code is written in Python. Difficulty This assignment is appropriate for various levels, depending on the initial conditions: starter code (or not), existing color maps (or not) and time alloted. A late-semester CS1 class given the starter code and a week. Strengths Solving the mystery of what the image "looks" like Working with real-world data to get visual, graphical feedback. Allows for some artistic flair resulting in variations among solutions Depending on the assignment write up there are open ended options including: creating different colormaps for different images; scaling the data to fit a given image size; a "smarter" program to deduce the image size from the data file; statistical analysis of the data to drive the choice of color map values Weaknesses When creating a colormap from scratch it can be tricky to get color assignments that are both visually pleasing (artistic) and pull out the desired details, though that is part of the point of this assignment. Use of graphics makes unit testing more challenging. Dependencies if statement loops reading files elementary graphics concepts Variants More or different "mystery" images can be used. Simplify by eliminating the command line parsing: assume a 500x500 image and fix the two file names. Different languages can be used, as other image libraries are readily available online (e.g., for Java). Use in a graphics/image-procesing class without starter code to have the students explore different image file formats. Require more statistical analysis of the input data to justify the choice of colormap (e.g., mean, median, mode and histogram of data values). Developed for a class in High Performance Computing (HPC) as an early lab to build this tool for later use in other labs that generated large data files and needed visualization.

## Files Included

 art/ illustrations used in lab assignment and web page code/ contains starter code css/ style sheets for index.html data/ 5 different Mystery data files GradingRubric.txt grading rubric, sort of index.html web page describing this Nifty Assignment Lab_ColorMyWorld.docx lab assignment, MSWord source Lab_ColorMyWorld.odt lab assignment, LibreOffice source Lab_ColorMyWorld.pdf lab assignment, as a pdf MysteryData.zip zip file of the 5 Mystery data files README.txt this info, in a file

### Mystery Data Files

rows cols Filename
500500 Mystery1.data
500500 Mystery2.data
500500 Mystery3.data
762602 Mystery4.data
14721156 Mystery5.data

For an extensive presentation on Scientific Visualization I recommend "Overview and Introduction to Scientific Visualization" from the Texas Advanced Computing Center at The University of Texas at Austin